Send to

Choose Destination
See comment in PubMed Commons below
Anal Chem. 2009 Feb 15;81(4):1418-25. doi: 10.1021/ac8021746.

Nanosensors based on viologen functionalized silver nanoparticles: few molecules surface-enhanced Raman spectroscopy detection of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons in interparticle hot spots.

Author information

Instituto de Estructura de la Materia, CSIC, Serrano, 121, 28006-Madrid, Spain.


The functionalization of silver nanoparticles (Ag NPs) by viologen dications (VGDs) is reported in this work as well as their applications in the surface-enhanced Raman scattering (SERS) detection of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs). VGDs are able to form intermolecular cavities at interparticle junctions (SERS hot spots) where the analyte can be allocated. This leads to a giant intensification of the Raman emission of the target molecule. This effect was applied in the detection of PAHs, one of the most widespread and dangerous group of pollutants existing in the atmosphere and waters. A comparison between sensing-systems based on different VGDs (lucigenin, diquat, and paraquat) was done for the detection of two PAHs (pyrene and benzo[c]phenanthrene). The functionalization with lucigenin (LG) provided the most powerful and stable VGD-NPs sensor, which allowed the SERS detection of pyrene (PYR) down to 10(-9) M in the macro setup and in the zeptomole range for spectra obtained by single NPs aggregates (micro setup). Besides, SERS spectra afforded important structural information about the interaction mechanism of VGD and PAHs, revealing the formation of a CT complex between the VGD and PYR and changes in the host conformation. The position of the nu(Ag-Cl) band and the plasmon resonance contribution assigned to Ag dimers were also used as spectral markers to monitor the host-guest interaction.

PubMed Commons home

PubMed Commons

How to join PubMed Commons

    Supplemental Content

    Full text links

    Icon for American Chemical Society
    Loading ...
    Support Center