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J Biomed Mater Res B Appl Biomater. 2009 Aug;90(2):700-9. doi: 10.1002/jbm.b.31337.

Antibacterial properties of a tri-sodium citrate modified glass polyalkenoate cement.

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Materials and Surface Science Institute, University of Limerick, Limerick, Ireland.


Primary deep infection following joint replacement surgery accounts for 7% of all revisions. Glass polyalkenoate cements (GPCs) have previously been shown to exhibit antibacterial properties. The present study had two objectives. The first was to determine if addition of tri-sodium citrate (TSC) to the powder phase of an Al-free GPC (0.04 SrO-0.12 CaO-0.36 ZnO-0.48 SiO2, by mole fraction) enhanced the resultant cement's antibacterial properties against three strains of bacteria that are commonly found in periprosthetic sites following total joint replacements (TJRs); namely, E. coli, B. fragilis, and S. epidermidis. Four cement sets were prepared, which contained 0 wt% TSC (control), 5 wt% TSC, 10 wt% TSC, and 15 wt% TSC. All the TSC-modified cements were found to exhibit large inhibition zones against all the bacterial strains, especially the cement containing 15 wt% TSC against E. coli. The antibacterial properties of the TSC containing GPCs are attributed to the release of Zn and Na ions from the cements and the presence of the TSC. The second objective was to investigate if, when a modified GPC is embedded in a bovine bone model, ionic transfer occurs. It was found that Zn ions migrated from the cement to the surrounding bone, particularly at the cement-bone interface. This is a desirable outcome as Zn ions are known to play a vital role in both bone metabolism and the regeneration of healthy bone. The present results point to the potential clinical benefits of using TSC-modified GPCs in TJRs.

[Indexed for MEDLINE]

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