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Neuroimmunomodulation. 2009;16(2):106-13. doi: 10.1159/000180265. Epub 2009 Feb 11.

Sex hormones and modulation of immunity against leishmaniasis.

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1
Department of Microbiology, The Ohio State University, 484 West 12th Avenue, Columbus, OH 43210, USA.

Abstract

Sex-associated hormones such as estradiol, testosterone and progesterone have all been shown to modulate immune responses, which can result in differential disease outcomes between males and females, as well as between pregnant and nonpregnant females. Most parasitic diseases, including leishmaniasis, usually result in more severe disease in males compared with females. This review highlights our current knowledge concerning the role of sex hormones in modulating leishmaniasis in both clinical settings and experimental disease models.

PMID:
19212130
PMCID:
PMC2760305
DOI:
10.1159/000180265
[Indexed for MEDLINE]
Free PMC Article
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