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JAMA. 2009 Feb 11;301(6):629-35. doi: 10.1001/jama.2009.96.

Effect of food additives on hyperphosphatemia among patients with end-stage renal disease: a randomized controlled trial.

Author information

1
Division of Nephrology, MetroHealth Medical Center, 2500 MetroHealth Dr, Cleveland, OH 44109, USA.

Abstract

CONTEXT:

High dietary phosphorus intake has deleterious consequences for renal patients and is possibly harmful for the general public as well. To prevent hyperphosphatemia, patients with end-stage renal disease limit their intake of foods that are naturally high in phosphorus. However, phosphorus-containing additives are increasingly being added to processed and fast foods. The effect of such additives on serum phosphorus levels is unclear.

OBJECTIVE:

To determine the effect of limiting the intake of phosphorus-containing food additives on serum phosphorus levels among patients with end-stage renal disease.

DESIGN, SETTING, AND PARTICIPANTS:

Cluster randomized controlled trial at 14 long-term hemodialysis facilities in northeast Ohio. Two hundred seventy-nine patients with elevated baseline serum phosphorus levels (>5.5 mg/dL) were recruited between May and October 2007. Two shifts at each of 12 large facilities and 1 shift at each of 2 small facilities were randomly assigned to an intervention or control group.

INTERVENTION:

Intervention participants (n=145) received education on avoiding foods with phosphorus additives when purchasing groceries or visiting fast food restaurants. Control participants (n=134) continued to receive usual care.

MAIN OUTCOME MEASURE:

Change in serum phosphorus level after 3 months.

RESULTS:

At baseline, there was no significant difference in serum phosphorus levels between the 2 groups. After 3 months, the decline in serum phosphorus levels was 0.6 mg/dL larger among intervention vs control participants (95% confidence interval, -1.0 to -0.1 mg/dL). Intervention participants also had statistically significant increases in reading ingredient lists (P<.001) and nutrition facts labels (P = .04) but no significant increase in food knowledge scores (P = .13).

CONCLUSION:

Educating end-stage renal disease patients to avoid phosphorus-containing food additives resulted in modest improvements in hyperphosphatemia.

TRIAL REGISTRATION:

clinicaltrials.gov Identifier: NCT00583570.

PMID:
19211470
DOI:
10.1001/jama.2009.96
[Indexed for MEDLINE]

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