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Respirology. 2009 Mar;14(2):305-8. doi: 10.1111/j.1440-1843.2008.01450.x. Epub 2008 Dec 11.

Pulmonary alveolar proteinosis in a patient with Behcet's disease.

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Department of Advanced Molecular Cell Therapy, Kyushu University, Fukuoka, Japan.


Secondary pulmonary alveolar proteinosis (PAP) has been described in several clinical settings that can be grouped into three main categories: infections of the lung; haematological malignancies and other conditions that alter the patient's immune status; and exposure to inhaled chemicals and minerals. Recent studies reported that anti-granulocyte-macrophage colony-stimulating factor (GM-CSF) antibody was present in the serum of patients with idiopathic PAP but not in patients with secondary PAP or in normal subjects. The present report describes the interesting case of a patient with Behcet's disease and PAP. The absence of anti-GM-CSF antibodies in this patient suggested a diagnosis of secondary PAP.

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