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J Pediatr Endocrinol Metab. 2008 Oct;21(10):1003-9.

Novel homozygous AIRE mutation in a German patient with severe APECED.

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Division of Pediatric Endocrinology and Diabetes, Department of Pediatrics and Adolescent Medicine, University of Ulm, Ulm, Germany.


Autoimmune polyendocrinopathy-candidiasis-ectodermal dystrophy (APECED) is a rare autosomal recessive disorder typically presenting with chronic mucocutaneous candidiasis, hypoparathyroidism, and adrenal failure variably accompanied by other symptoms. APECED is caused by a mutation in the autoimmune regulator gene (AIRE). Today over 60 different mutations are known world-wide, most of them localized in exons 2, 8, and 10. We report here a German girl with rheumatoid factor positive arthritis, chronic mucocutaneous candidiasis, autoimmune hepatitis, chronic diarrhea, vitiligo, hypothyroidism, hypoparathyroidism, and adrenal failure who is homozygous for a novel mutation at the end of exon 3 of the AIRE gene (c.462G>A), within the conserved splice donor sequence. This mutation probably introduces a frameshift after amino acid 154 (p.Pro154fs) by skipping exon 4. In addition, we analyzed five other family members out of three generations for the AIRE gene mutation and for polymorphisms in the cytotoxic T lymphocyte antigen 4 (CTLA4) gene region and lymphoid protein tyrosine phosphatase (PTPN22) gene, which are associated with the occurrence of sporadic autoimmune Addison's disease, type 1 diabetes mellitus, and generalized vitiligo.

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