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Muscle Nerve. 2009 Mar;39(3):333-42. doi: 10.1002/mus.21167.

Clinical and genetic analysis of lipid storage myopathies.

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Department of Neuromuscular Research, National Institute of Neuroscience, National Center of Neurology and Psychiatry (NCNP), 4-1-1 Ogawahigashi-cho, Kodaira, 187-8502 Tokyo, Japan.


Causative genes have been identified only in four types of lipid storage myopathies (LSMs): SLC22A5 for primary carnitine deficiency (PCD); ETFA, ETFB, and ETFDH for multiple acyl-coenzyme A dehydrogenation deficiency (MADD); PNPLA2 for neutral lipid storage disease with myopathy (NLSDM); and ABHD5 for neutral lipid storage disease with ichthyosis. However, the frequency of these LSMs has not been determined. We found mutations in only 9 of 37 LSM patients (24%): 3 in SLC22A5; 4 in MADD-associated genes; and 2 in PNPLA2. This low frequency suggests the existence of other causative genes. Muscle coenzyme Q(10) levels were normal or only mildly reduced in two MADD patients, indicating that ETFDH mutations may not always be associated with CoQ(10) deficiency. The 2 patients with PNPLA2 mutations had progressive, non-episodic muscle disease with rimmed vacuoles. This suggests there is a different pathomechanism from other LSMs.

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