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Am J Med Genet A. 2009 Mar;149A(3):315-21. doi: 10.1002/ajmg.a.32639.

Male-to-male transmission of Costello syndrome: G12S HRAS germline mutation inherited from a father with somatic mosaicism.

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Nemours Biomedical Research, Nemours Children's Clinic, Wilmington, Delaware 19803, USA.


Costello syndrome is a rare congenital anomaly syndrome associated with mental retardation and predisposition to benign and malignant tumors, caused by heterozygous missense mutations in the HRAS oncogene. Previously, all molecularly analyzed mutations appeared de novo, and most arose in the paternal germline. A single patient with somatic mosaicism for a Costello syndrome causing HRAS mutation has been reported. Here we describe the first documented transmission of an HRAS mutation from a parent with somatic mosaicism to a child with typical Costello syndrome. Prior to the identification of the underlying gene mutation in Costello syndrome, this family had been identified clinically. The proband was subsequently found to carry a G12S HRAS germline mutation. Testing of the parents for parental origin identified his father as mosaic for the same HRAS mutation. The mother was found not to carry an HRAS mutation. The causative familial mutation is identified as a c.34G > A, which is the most common mutation in the HRAS gene in patients with Costello syndrome. The father carries the mutation in 7-8% of his alleles. This is the second case of mosaicism observed in Costello syndrome and the first direct molecular evidence of father-to-son transmission of the disease-causing mutation. Our observation underlines the importance of parental evaluation, and may have implications for genetic counseling and clinical practice.

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