Send to

Choose Destination
Immunity. 2009 Feb 20;30(2):242-53. doi: 10.1016/j.immuni.2008.11.012. Epub 2009 Feb 5.

Toll-like receptor 7 mitigates lethal West Nile encephalitis via interleukin 23-dependent immune cell infiltration and homing.

Author information

Department of Immunobiology, Yale University School of Medicine, New Haven, CT 06520, USA.


West Nile virus (WNV), a mosquito-transmitted single-stranded RNA (ssRNA) flavivirus, causes human disease of variable severity. We investigated Toll-like receptor 7-deficient (Tlr7(-/-)) and myeloid differentiation factor 88-deficient (Myd88(-/-)) mice, which both have defective recognition of ssRNA, and found increased viremia and susceptibility to lethal WNV infection. Despite increased tissue concentrations of most innate cytokines, CD45(+) leukocytes and CD11b(+) macrophages failed to home to WNV-infected cells and infiltrate into target organs of Tlr7(-/-) mice. Tlr7(-/-) mice and macrophages had reduced interleukin-12 (IL-12) and IL-23 responses after WNV infection, and mice deficient in IL-12 p40 and IL-23 p40 (Il12b(-/-)) or IL-23 p19 (Il23a(-/-)), but not IL-12 p35 (Il12a(-/-)), responded similarly to Tlr7(-/-) mice, with increased susceptibility to lethal WNV encephalitis. Collectively, these results demonstrate that TLR7 and IL-23-dependent WNV responses represent a vital host defense mechanism that operates by affecting immune cell homing to infected target cells.

[Indexed for MEDLINE]
Free PMC Article

Publication types, MeSH terms, Substances, Grant support

Publication types

MeSH terms


Grant support

Supplemental Content

Full text links

Icon for Elsevier Science Icon for PubMed Central
Loading ...
Support Center