Format

Send to

Choose Destination
J Neurosurg. 2009 May;110(5):1021-5. doi: 10.3171/2008.9.JNS17661.

Hemorrhage rates after external ventricular drain placement.

Author information

1
Department of Neurological Surgery, University of Pittsburgh, Pennsylvania, USA. gardpa@upmc.edu

Abstract

OBJECT:

External ventricular drain (EVD) placement is one of the most common neurosurgical procedures performed. Rates and significance of hemorrhage associated with this procedure have not been well quantified.

METHODS:

All adults who underwent EVD placement at the University of Pittsburgh Medical Center between July 2002 and June 2003 were evaluated for catheter-associated hemorrhage. Patients without postprocedural imaging were excluded.

RESULTS:

Seventy-seven (41%) of 188 EVDs were associated with imaging evidence of hemorrhage after either placement or removal. Most of these were insignificant, punctate intraparenchymal, or trace subarachnoid hemorrhages (51.9%). Thirty-seven (19.7%) were associated with larger hemorrhages, which were divided into 3 groups according to volume of hemorrhage: 16 patients (8.5%) had < 15 ml of hemorrhage, 20 (10.6%) had hemorrhages of > 15 ml or associated intraventricular hemorrhage, and in 1 case there was a subdural hematoma that required surgical evacuation. No hemorrhages larger than punctate or trace were seen after EVD removal. Hemorrhage was associated with 44.3% of EVDs placed in an intensive care unit compared with 34.8% in EVDs placed in the operating room (p > 0.10).

CONCLUSIONS:

External ventricular drain placement has a significant risk of associated hemorrhage. However, the hemorrhages are rarely large and almost never require surgical intervention. There is a favorable trend, but no significant risk reduction when EVDs are placed in the operating room rather than the intensive care unit.

PMID:
19199471
DOI:
10.3171/2008.9.JNS17661
[Indexed for MEDLINE]

Supplemental Content

Full text links

Icon for Sheridan PubFactory
Loading ...
Support Center