Format

Send to

Choose Destination
Carbohydr Res. 2009 Sep 28;344(14):1842-51. doi: 10.1016/j.carres.2008.11.022. Epub 2009 Jan 1.

Okra pectin contains an unusual substitution of its rhamnosyl residues with acetyl and alpha-linked galactosyl groups.

Author information

1
Department of Agrotechnology and Food Sciences, Wageningen University, The Netherlands.

Abstract

The okra plant, Abelmoschus esculentus (L.) Moench, a native plant from Africa, is now cultivated in many other areas such as Asia, Africa, Middle East, and the southern states of the USA. Okra pods are used as vegetables and as traditional medicines. Sequential extraction showed that the Hot Buffer Soluble Solids (HBSS) extract of okra consists of highly branched rhamnogalacturonan (RG) I containing high levels of acetyl groups and short galactose side chains. In contrast, the CHelating agent Soluble Solids (CHSS) extract contained pectin with less RG I regions and slightly longer galactose side chains. Both pectic populations were incubated with homogeneous and well characterized rhamnogalacturonan hydrolase (RGH), endo-polygalacturonase (PG), and endo-galactanase (endo-Gal), monitoring both high and low molecular weight fragments. RGH is able to degrade saponified HBSS and, to some extent, also non-saponified HBSS, while PG and endo-Gal are hardly able to degrade either HBSS or saponified HBSS. In contrast, PG is successful in degrading CHSS, while RGH and endo-Gal are hardly able to degrade the CHSS structure. These results point to a much higher homogalacturonan (HG) ratio for CHSS when compared to HBSS. In addition, the CHSS contained slightly longer galactan side chains within its RG I region than HBSS. Matrix-assisted laser desorption ionization-time of flight mass spectrometry indicated the presence of acetylated RG oligomers in the HBSS and CHSS enzyme digests and electron spray ionization-ion trap-mass spectrum showed that not only galacturonosyl residues but also rhamnosyl residues in RG I oligomers were O-acetylated. NMR spectroscopy showed that all rhamnose residues in a 20kDa HBSS population were O-acetylated at position O-3. Surprisingly, the NMR data also showed that terminal alpha-linked galactosyl groups were present as neutral side chain substituents. Taken together, these results demonstrate that okra contained RG I structures which have not been reported before for pectic RG I.

PMID:
19195648
DOI:
10.1016/j.carres.2008.11.022
[Indexed for MEDLINE]

Supplemental Content

Full text links

Icon for Elsevier Science
Loading ...
Support Center