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Neuropsychopharmacology. 2009 Jun;34(7):1625-40. doi: 10.1038/npp.2009.3. Epub 2009 Feb 4.

How to keep the brain awake? The complex molecular pharmacogenetics of wake promotion.

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Center for Integrative Genomics, University of Lausanne, Lausanne, Switzerland.


Wake-promoting drugs are widely used to treat excessive daytime sleepiness. The neuronal pathways involved in wake promotion are multiple and often not well characterized. We tested d-amphetamine, modafinil, and YKP10A, a novel wake-promoting compound, in three inbred strains of mice. The wake duration induced by YKP10A and d-amphetamine depended similarly on genotype, whereas opposite strain differences were observed after modafinil. Electroencephalogram (EEG) analysis during drug-induced wakefulness revealed a transient approximately 2 Hz slowing of theta oscillations and an increase in beta-2 (20-35 Hz) activity only after YKP10A. Gamma activity (35-60 Hz) was induced by all drugs in a drug- and genotype-dependent manner. Brain transcriptome and clustering analyses indicated that the three drugs have both common and specific molecular signatures. The correlation between specific EEG and gene-expression signatures suggests that the neuronal pathways activated to stay awake vary among drugs and genetic background.

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