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J Appl Behav Anal. 2008 Winter;41(4):551-63.

Randomized trial comparing two treatment strategies using prize-based reinforcement of abstinence in cocaine and opiate users.

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National Institute on Drug Abuse, USA.


We compared two strategies of prize-based contingency management (CM) in methadone-maintained outpatients. Urine was tested thrice weekly for 5 weeks pre-CM, 12 weeks CM, and 8 weeks post-CM. Participants were randomly assigned to a cocaine contingency (four prize draws for each cocaine-negative urine, N=29) or an opiate-cocaine contingency (one draw for each urine negative for opiates or cocaine, four draws if negative for both, N=38). There were no group differences in cocaine abstinence during CM or post-CM and no differences in opiate abstinence during CM. Opiate abstinence was greater in the opiate-cocaine group post-CM, and heroin craving was reduced in this group during and post-CM. Draws earned per cocaine-negative urine (four vs. one) did not affect cocaine use.

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