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J Appl Behav Anal. 2008 Winter;41(4):539-49.

Effect of reinforcement probability and prize size on cocaine and heroin abstinence in prize-based contingency management.

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National Institute on Drug Abuse, Clinical Pharmacology and Therapeutics Research Branch/Treatment Section, 251 Bayview Boulevard, Suite 200, Baltimore, Maryland 21224, USA.


Although treatment outcome in prize-based contingency management has been shown to depend on reinforcement schedule, the optimal schedule is still unknown. Therefore, we conducted a retrospective analysis of data from a randomized clinical trial (Ghitza et al., 2007) to determine the effects of the probability of winning a prize (low vs. high) and the size of the prize won (small, large, or jumbo) on likelihood of abstinence until the next urine-collection day for heroin and cocaine users (N=116) in methadone maintenance. Higher probability of winning, but not the size of individual prizes, was associated with a greater percentage of cocaine-negative, but not opiate-negative, urines.

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