Send to

Choose Destination
BJOG. 2009 Feb;116(3):416-23. doi: 10.1111/j.1471-0528.2008.01957.x.

High maternal vitamin E intake by diet or supplements is associated with congenital heart defects in the offspring.

Author information

Department of Obstetrics and Gynaecology, Division of Obstetrics and Prenatal Medicine, Erasmus MC, University Medical Centre, Rotterdam, The Netherlands.



To study associations between maternal dietary and supplement intake of antioxidants vitamin E, retinol and congenital heart defects (CHDs).


Case-control study.


Erasmus MC, University Medical Center Rotterdam, the Netherlands.


Participants were 276 case mothers of a child with CHD and 324 control mothers with their children.


Food frequency questionnaires covering the intake of the previous 4 weeks were filled out at 16 months after the index pregnancy. Data were compared between cases and controls using the Mann-Whitney U test. Risk estimates for the association between CHD and dietary intake of vitamin E and retinol were estimated in a multivariable logistic regression model.


Medians (5-95th percentile) and odds ratios with 95% CI.


Dietary vitamin E intake was higher in case mothers than in controls, 13.3 (8.1-20.4) and 12.6 (8.5-19.8) mg/day (P= 0.05). CHD risk increased with rising dietary vitamin E intakes (P-trend = 0.01). Periconception use of vitamin E supplements in addition to a high dietary vitamin E intake above 14.9 mg/day up to nine-fold increased CHD risk. Retinol intakes were not significantly different between the groups and not associated with CHD risk.


High maternal vitamin E by diet and supplements is associated with an increased risk of CHD offspring.

[Indexed for MEDLINE]
Free full text

Supplemental Content

Full text links

Icon for Wiley
Loading ...
Support Center