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FEBS J. 2009 Mar;276(5):1187-95. doi: 10.1111/j.1742-4658.2009.06876.x.

Protein transport in organelles: Dual targeting of proteins to mitochondria and chloroplasts.

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Australian Research Council Centre of Excellence in Plant Energy Biology, M316, University of Western Australia, Crawley, Australia.


As many as fifty proteins have now been experimentally demonstrated to be targeted to both mitochondria and plastids, a phenomenon referred to as dual targeting. Although the first reported case of dual targeting of a protein was reported in 1995, there is still little understanding of the mechanism of dual targeting and any similarities or differences with respect to the targeting of location-specific proteins. This minireview summarizes dual targeting in terms of signals, passenger proteins, receptors, regulation, why proteins may need to be dual targeted and the future challenges that remain in this area.

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