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Trends Cardiovasc Med. 2008 Aug;18(6):224-8. doi: 10.1016/j.tcm.2008.11.003.

Foxc2 transcription factor: a newly described regulator of angiogenesis.

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Division of Cardiovascular Medicine, Department of Medicine, Vanderbilt University Medical Center, Nashville, TN 37232-6300, USA.


Angiogenesis is a critical process to form new blood vessels from preexisting vessels under physiologic and pathologic conditions and involves cellular and morphologic changes such as endothelial cell proliferation, migration, and vascular tube formation. Despite evidence that angiogenic factors, including vascular endothelial growth factor and Notch, control various aspects of angiogenesis, the molecular mechanisms underlying gene regulation in blood vessels and surrounding tissues are not fully understood. Importantly, recent studies demonstrate that Forkhead transcription factor Foxc2 directly regulates expression of various genes involved in angiogenesis, CXCR4, integrin beta3, Delta-like 4 (Dll4), and angiopoietin 2, thereby controlling angiogenic processes. Thus, Foxc2 is now recognized as a novel regulator of vascular formation and remodeling. This review summarizes current knowledge about the function of Foxc2 in angiogenesis and discusses prospects for future research in Foxc2-mediated pathologic angiogenesis in cardiovascular disease.

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