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Paediatr Child Health. 2008 Feb;13(2):99-103.

Nasal continuous positive airway pressure and outcomes in preterm infants: A retrospective analysis.

Author information

1
Division of Neonatology, Department of Pediatrics, Children's and Women's Health Centre of British Columbia, University of British Columbia, Vancouver, British Columbia.

Abstract

OBJECTIVE:

The aim of the present retrospective study was to describe the use of nasal continuous positive airway pressure (NCPAP) and the prevalence of bronchopulmonary dysplasia (BPD).

STUDY DESIGN:

Data from 1526 neonates with gestational age less than 32 weeks, admitted to Children's and Women's Health Centre of British Columbia (Vancouver, British Columbia) between period 1 (1996 to 2000) and period 2 (2000 to 2004) were analyzed. The use of respiratory therapies and outcomes were retrospectively compared before and after the introduction of a NCPAP approach to respiratory support.

RESULTS:

A significant increase in the use of NCPAP was noted between periods 1 and 2 (60% versus 71%), as well as a significant reduction in the use of surfactant (50% versus 41%), postnatal steroids (30% versus 10%) and the need for mechanical ventilation (77% versus 64%). In period 2, there was a significant reduction in the prevalence of BPD at 28 days (33% versus 26%), higher prevalence of severe retinopathy of prematurity (3% versus 6%) and less periventricular leukomalacia (4% versus 2%).

CONCLUSIONS:

A significant increase in the use of NCPAP therapy in the neonatal unit has been associated with a decrease in the use of more invasive therapies. The incidence of BPD has decreased if defined as need for supplemental oxygen at 28 days of age, but not when the 36 weeks' postconceptional age criterion was used. NCPAP therapy may decrease the use of more invasive therapies and may improve respiratory outcomes. The impact of this intervention on nonrespiratory outcomes warrants further investigation.

KEYWORDS:

Bronchopulmonary dysplasia; CPAP; Neonatology; Premature infants; Retinopathy of prematurity

PMID:
19183712
PMCID:
PMC2528745

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