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Tissue Eng Part B Rev. 2008 Sep;14(3):275-83. doi: 10.1089/ten.teb.2008.0083.

Biological basis of bone formation, remodeling, and repair-part II: extracellular matrix.

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Institute of Reconstructive Plastic Surgery, New York University Medical Center, New York, New York, USA.


The bony biochemical environment is a complex system that permits and promotes cellular functions that lead to matrix production and ossification. In Part I of this review, we discussed the important actions of signaling molecules, including hormones, cytokines, and growth factors. Here, we review other constituents of the extracellular matrix, including minerals, fibrinous and nonfibrinous proteins, and enzymes such as the matrix metalloproteinases. We conclude with a discussion of the role of biochemical modulation in endogenous and exogenous tissue engineering.

[Indexed for MEDLINE]

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