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Appl Environ Microbiol. 2009 Apr;75(7):2139-47. doi: 10.1128/AEM.02352-08. Epub 2009 Jan 30.

Complete genome of the broad-host-range Erwinia amylovora phage phiEa21-4 and its relationship to Salmonella phage felix O1.

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Department of Biological Science, Brock University, 500 Glenridge Avenue, St. Catharines, Ontario L2S 3A1, Canada.


The first complete genome sequence for a myoviridal bacteriophage, PhiEa21-4, infecting Erwinia amylovora, Erwinia pyrifoliae, and Pantoea agglomerans strains has been determined. The unique sequence of this terminally redundant, circularly permuted genome is 84,576 bp. The PhiEa21-4 genome has a GC content of 43.8% and contains 117 putative protein-coding genes and 26 tRNA genes. PhiEa21-4 is the first phage in which a precisely conserved rho-independent terminator has been found dispersed throughout the genome, with 24 copies in all. Also notable in the PhiEa21-4 genome are the presence of tRNAs with six- and nine-base anticodon loops, the absence of a small packaging terminase subunit, and the presence of nadV, a principle component of the NAD(+) salvage pathway, which has been found in only a few phage genomes to date. PhiEa21-4 is the first reported Felix O1-like phage genome; 56% of the predicted PhiEa21-4 proteins share homology with those of the Salmonella phage. Apart from this similarity to Felix O1, the PhiEa21-4 genome appears to be substantially different, both globally and locally, from previously reported sequences. A total of 43 of the 117 genes are unique to PhiEa21-4, and 32 of the Felix O1-like genes do not appear in any phage genome sequences other than PhiEa21-4 and Felix O1. N-terminal sequencing and matrix-assisted laser desorption ionization-time of flight analysis resulted in the identification of five PhiEa21-4 genes coding for virion structural proteins, including the major capsid protein.

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