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Zhonghua Yu Fang Yi Xue Za Zhi. 2008 Oct;42(10):722-6.

[Study on maternal-fetal status of Pb, As, Cd, Mn and Zn elements and the influence factors].

[Article in Chinese]

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Environmental Health Department, Shanghai Jiao Tong University School of Medicine, Shanghai 200025, China.



Trace and toxic elements have great influences on the fetus growth during the pregnancy. The status of Pb, As, Cd, Mn and Zn in maternal and umbilical cord blood and influence factors were analyzed.


From September 2006 to April 2007, 130 pairs of maternal blood and cord blood in total were collected at the time of spontaneous delivery or cesarean section. At the same time, the development of newborn was measured immediately. The concentrations of elements were determined by inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry, the relationship of these elements between maternal and cord blood were also analyzed.


The median (microg/L) concentration of blood Pb, As, Cd, Mn and Zn in maternal blood were 64.32, 3.81, 0.84, 54.26 and 6312.50. And the median (microg/L) of those elements in cord blood were 35.72, 2.84, 0.32, 78.99 and 2250. The levels of Cd (r=0.341, P=0.000) and As (r=0.552, P=0.000) in maternal blood were positively correlated with the elements in the cord blood. From the questionnaire we conclude that the occupational hazardous factors and room decorated were the risk factors for the blood As and Zn levels. After multilinear regression analysis we also found mother weight, occupational hazardous factors and mother systolic pressure might affect the levels of blood Mn, Zn, As and Cd.


The levels of these elements were affected by environmental and maternal factors. In this study, although the levels of all heavy metals in pregnant women were below those considered hazardous, however, they were still higher than those in the developed countries. The effects of heavy metals of maternal exposure on developing fetuses should deserve attention further.

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