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Immunology. 2009 Aug;127(4):539-48. doi: 10.1111/j.1365-2567.2008.03024.x. Epub 2008 Dec 18.

1alpha,25-dihydroxyvitamin D3 inhibits matrix metalloproteinases induced by Mycobacterium tuberculosis infection.

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  • 1Division of Mycobacterial Research, National Institute for Medical Research, London, UK.


Matrix metalloproteinases (MMP) can degrade all components of pulmonary extracellular matrix. Mycobacterium tuberculosis induces production of a number of these enzymes by human macrophages, and these are implicated in the pathogenesis of pulmonary cavitation in tuberculosis. The active metabolite of vitamin D, 1alpha,25-dihydroxyvitamin D(3) [1alpha,25(OH)(2)D(3)], has previously been reported to inhibit secretion of MMP-9 in human monocytes (MN), but its influence on the secretion and gene expression of MMP and tissue inhibitors of MMP (TIMP) in M. tuberculosis-infected cells has not previously been investigated. We therefore determined the effects of 1alpha,25(OH)(2)D(3) on expression, secretion and activity of a number of MMP and TIMP in M. tuberculosis-infected human leucocytes; we also investigated the effect of 1alpha,25(OH)(2)D(3) on the secretion of interleukin-10 (IL-10) and prostaglandin E(2) (PGE(2)), both transcriptional regulators of MMP expression. We found that M. tuberculosis induced expression of MMP-1, MMP-7 and MMP-10 in MN and MMP-1 and MMP-10 in peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMC). 1alpha,25(OH)(2)D(3) significantly attenuated M. tuberculosis-induced increases in expression of MMP-7 and MMP-10, and suppressed secretion of MMP-7 by M. tuberculosis-infected PBMC. MMP-9 gene expression, secretion and activity were significantly inhibited by 1alpha,25(OH)(2)D(3) irrespective of infection. In contrast, the effects of 1alpha,25(OH)(2)D(3) on the expression of TIMP-1, TIMP-2 and TIMP-3 and secretion of TIMP-1 and TIMP-2 were small and variable. 1alpha,25(OH)(2)D(3) also induced secretion of IL-10 and PGE(2) from M. tuberculosis-infected PBMC. These findings represent a novel immunomodulatory role for 1alpha,25(OH)(2)D(3) in M. tuberculosis infection.

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