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Diabetes Obes Metab. 2009 Jun;11(6):632-6. doi: 10.1111/j.1463-1326.2008.01017.x. Epub 2009 Jan 19.

Effects of cevoglitazar, a dual PPARalpha/gamma agonist, on ectopic fat deposition in fatty Zucker rats.



By acting as both insulin sensitizers and lipid-lowering agents, dual-acting peroxisome proliferator-activated receptors alpha/gamma (PPARalpha/gamma) agonists may be used to improve glucose tolerance in type 2 diabetic patients without inducing adiposity and body weight gain. Here, in an animal model of obesity and insulin resistance, the metabolic response to cevoglitazar, a dual PPARalpha/gamma, was characterized using a combination of in vivo and ex vivo magnetic resonance methodologies and compared to treatment effects of fenofibrate, a PPARalpha agonist, and pioglitazone, a PPARgamma agonist.


Four groups of fatty Zucker rats: (i) Vehicle; (ii) fenofibrate 150 mg/kg; (iii) pioglitazone 30 mg/kg; and (iv) cevoglitazar 5 mg/kg were investigated before and after treatment. Animals were fed a fat-enriched (54% kcal fat) diet for 6 weeks, 2 weeks high of fat-exposure alone followed by a 4-week dosing period.


Cevoglitazar was as effective as pioglitazone at improving glucose tolerance. However, unlike pioglitazone, both fenofibrate and cevoglitazar reduced BW gain and adiposity, independent of food intake. All three treatment regimens normalized intramyocellular lipids. Metabolic profiling showed that in the muscle cevoglitazar improves the lipid profile via both PPARalpha- and PPARgamma-mediated mechanisms. Pioglitazone reduced hepatic lipid accumulation, while cevoglitazar and fenofibrate reduced hepatic lipid concentration below baseline levels (p < 0.05). Metabolic profiling showed that in the liver, cevoglitazar functions largely through PPARalpha agonism resulting in increased beta-oxidation. Cevoglitazar only induced small changes to the lipid composition of visceral fat. In subcutaneous fat, however, cevoglitazar induced changes similar to those observed with fenofibrate suggesting export of fatty acids from this depot.

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