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J Clin Endocrinol Metab. 2009 Apr;94(4):1379-85. doi: 10.1210/jc.2008-2197. Epub 2009 Jan 27.

Hyperglycemia acutely lowers the postprandial excursions of glucagon-like Peptide-1 and gastric inhibitory polypeptide in humans.

Author information

1
Department of Medicine I, St Josef-Hospital , Ruhr-University Bochum, Bochum, Germany.

Abstract

INTRODUCTION:

Impaired secretion of glucagon-like peptide 1 (GLP-1) has been suggested to contribute to the deficient incretin effect in patients with type 2 diabetes. It is unclear whether this is a primary defect or a consequence of the hyperglycemia in type 2 diabetes. We examined whether acute hyperglycemia reduces the postprandial excursions of gastric inhibitory polypeptide (GIP) and GLP-1, and if so, whether this can be attributed to changes in gastric emptying.

PATIENTS AND METHODS:

Fifteen nondiabetic individuals participated in a euglycemic clamp and a hyperglycemic clamp experiment, carried out over 285 min. A mixed meal was ingested after 45 min. Plasma concentrations of glucose, insulin, C-peptide, glucagon, triglycerides, GIP, and GLP-1 were determined, and gastric emptying was assessed using a (13)C-octanoate breath test.

RESULTS:

Glucose levels were 160 +/- 1 mg/dl during the hyperglycemic clamp experiments and 83 +/- 3 mg/dl during the euglycemia (P < 0.0001). Glucose infusion rates were higher during hyperglycemia, but meal ingestion led to a decline in glucose requirements in both experiments (P < 0.0001). Insulin and C-peptide levels were higher during the hyperglycemic clamp experiments (P < 0.0001), whereas glucagon levels were higher during euglycemia (P < 0.0001). The postprandial increases in GIP and GLP-1 concentrations were 46 and 52% lower during the experiments with hyperglycemia (P = 0.0017 and P = 0.021). Hyperglycemia also elicited a significant delay in gastric emptying (P < 0.0001).

CONCLUSIONS:

Hyperglycemia acutely reduces the postprandial levels of GIP and GLP-1, possibly through a deceleration of gastric emptying. This supports the concept that reduced incretin levels in some patients with type 2 diabetes are a consequence rather than a cause of type 2 diabetes.

PMID:
19174495
DOI:
10.1210/jc.2008-2197
[Indexed for MEDLINE]

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