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J Biol Chem. 2009 Mar 27;284(13):8855-65. doi: 10.1074/jbc.M808463200. Epub 2009 Jan 26.

{beta}-Arrestin-2 Mediates Anti-apoptotic Signaling through Regulation of BAD Phosphorylation.

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  • 1Departments of Medicine and Biochemistry and Howard Hughes Medical Institute, Duke University Medical Center, Durham, North Carolina 27710, USA.


beta-Arrestins, originally discovered as terminators of G protein-coupled receptor signaling, have more recently been appreciated to also function as signal transducers in their own right, although the consequences for cellular physiology have not been well understood. Here we demonstrate that beta-arrestin-2 mediates anti-apoptotic cytoprotective signaling stimulated by a typical 7-transmembrane receptor the angiotensin ATII 1A receptor, expressed endogenously in rat vascular smooth muscle cells or by transfection in HEK-293 cells. Receptor stimulation leads to concerted activation of two pathways, ERK/p90RSK and PI3K/AKT, which converge to phosphorylate and inactivate the pro-apoptotic protein BAD. Anti-apoptotic effects as well as pathway activities can be stimulated by an angiotensin analog (SII), which has been previously shown to activate beta-arrestin but not G protein-dependent signaling, and are abrogated by beta-arrestin-2 small interfering RNA. These findings establish a key role for beta-arrestin-2 in mediating cellular cytoprotective functions by a 7-transmembrane receptor and define the biochemical pathways involved.

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