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Diabetes Care. 2009 Apr;32(4):658-63. doi: 10.2337/dc08-1641. Epub 2009 Jan 26.

Prevalence of abnormal lipid profiles and the relationship with the development of microalbuminuria in adolescents with type 1 diabetes.

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Department of Paediatrics and the Institute of Metabolic Science, University of Cambridge, Addenbrooke's Hospital, Cambridge, UK.



To explore the prevalence of lipid abnormalities and their relationship with albumin excretion and microalbuminuria in adolescents with type 1 diabetes.


The study population comprised 895 young subjects with type 1 diabetes (490 males); median age at the baseline assessment was 14.5 years (range 10-21.1), and median diabetes duration was 4.8 years (0.2-17). A total of 2,194 nonfasting blood samples were collected longitudinally for determination of total cholesterol, LDL cholesterol, HDL cholesterol, TG, and non-HDL cholesterol. Additional annually collected data on anthropometric parameters, A1C, and albumin-to-creatinine ratio (ACR) were available.


Total cholesterol, LDL cholesterol, HDL cholesterol, and non-HDL cholesterol were higher in females than in males (all P < 0.001). A significant proportion of subjects presented sustained lipid abnormalities during follow-up: total cholesterol >5.2 mmol/l (18.6%), non-HDL cholesterol >3.4 mmol/l (25.9%), TG >1.7 mmol/l (20.1%), and LDL cholesterol >3.4 mmol/l (9.6%). Age and duration were significantly related to all lipid parameters (P < 0.001); A1C was independently related to all parameters (P < 0.001) except HDL cholesterol, whereas BMI SD scores were related to all parameters (P < 0.05) except total cholesterol. Total cholesterol and non-HDL cholesterol were independently related to longitudinal changes in ACR (B coefficient +/- SE): 0.03 +/- 0.01/1 mmol/l, P = 0.009, and 0.32 +/- 0.014/1 mmol/l, P = 0.02, respectively. Overall mean total cholesterol and non-HDL cholesterol were higher in microalbuminuria positive (n = 115) than in normoalbuminuric subjects (n = 780): total cholesterol 4.7 +/- 1.2 vs. 4.5 +/- 0.8 mmol/l (P = 0.04) and non-HDL cholesterol 3.2 +/- 1.2 vs. 2.9 +/- 0.8 mmol/l (P = 0.03).


In this longitudinal study of adolescents with type 1 diabetes, sustained lipid abnormalities were related to age, duration, BMI, and A1C. Furthermore, ACR was related to both total cholesterol and non-HDL cholesterol, indicating a potential role in the pathogenesis of diabetic nephropathy.

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