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Vision Res. 2009 Mar;49(5):536-43. doi: 10.1016/j.visres.2008.12.015. Epub 2009 Jan 22.

Colour-space distortion in women who are heterozygous for colour deficiency.

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School of Arts, Development and Health Education, Massey University, Private Bag 11-222, Palmerston North, New Zealand.


We examined colour perception among a group of women heterozygous for colour vision deficiency. Judgements of colour dissimilarity were collected by presenting colour stimuli in groups of three for odd-one-out decisions. The judgements were summarised as one consensus colour space for the heterozygotes and another for age-matched controls. Individual differences MDS was also applied, resulting in a single colour space which can be adjusted to fit each subject's responses individually by compressing it along its axes. Heterozygous women showed a trend towards colour-space compression in a red-green dimension, or reduced salience of that dimension compared to controls, though less extreme than found in overt colour deficiency.

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