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Int J Antimicrob Agents. 2009 Jul;34(1):8.e1-9. doi: 10.1016/j.ijantimicag.2008.11.006. Epub 2009 Jan 21.

Tigecycline in combination with other antimicrobials: a review of in vitro, animal and case report studies.

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1
Department of Fundamental Microbiology, Faculty of Biology and Medicine, University of Lausanne, CH-1015 Lausanne, Switzerland. jose.entenza@unil.ch

Abstract

Tigecycline has been investigated in combination with other antibacterials against a wide range of susceptible and multiresistant Gram-positive and Gram-negative bacteria. Combinations have been analysed in vitro, in animal models and in human case reports. In vitro, tigecycline combined with other antimicrobials produces primarily an indifferent response (neither synergy nor antagonism). Nevertheless, synergy occurred when tigecycline was combined with rifampicin against 64-100% of Enterococcus spp., Streptococcus pneumoniae, Enterobacter spp. and Brucella melitensis isolates. Combinations of tigecycline with amikacin also showed synergy for 40-100% of Enterobacter spp., Klebsiella pneumoniae, Proteus spp. and Stenotrophomonas maltophilia isolates. Moreover, bactericidal synergisms occurred with tigecycline plus amikacin against problematic Acinetobacter baumannii and Proteus vulgaris, and with colistin against K. pneumoniae. Data from animal experiments and case reports, although limited, displayed consistent beneficial activity of tigecycline in combination with other antibacterials against multiresistant organisms, including vancomycin against penicillin-resistant S. pneumoniae in experimental meningitis, gentamicin against Pseudomonas aeruginosa in experimental pneumonia, daptomycin against Enterococcus faecium endocarditis, and colistin against K. pneumoniae bacteraemia and P. aeruginosa osteomyelitis. Antagonism was extremely rare in vitro and was not reported in vivo. Thus, tigecycline may be combined with a second antimicrobial as part of a combination regimen.

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