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Virology. 2009 Mar 15;385(2):383-91. doi: 10.1016/j.virol.2008.12.029. Epub 2009 Jan 21.

Vaccinia virus exhibits cell-type-dependent entry characteristics.

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School of Dental Medicine, University of Pennsylvania, Philadelphia, PA 19104, USA.


Differing and sometimes conflicting data have been reported regarding several aspects of vaccinia virus (VV) entry. To address this, we used a beta-galactosidase reporter virus to monitor virus entry into multiple cell types under varying conditions. Entry into HeLa, B78H1 and L cells was strongly inhibited by heparin whereas entry into Vero and BSC-1 cells was unaffected. Bafilomycin also exhibited variable and cell-type-specific effects on VV entry. Entry into B78H1 and BSC-1 cells was strongly inhibited by bafilomycin whereas entry into Vero and HeLa cells was only partially inhibited suggesting the co-existence of both pH-dependent and pH-independent VV entry pathways in these cell types. Finally, entry into HeLa, B78H1, L and BSC-1 cells exhibited a lag of 6-9 min whereas this delay was undetectable in Vero cells. Our results suggest that VV exploits multiple cell attachment and entry pathways allowing it to infect a broad range of cells.

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