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Biochim Biophys Acta. 2009 Apr;1788(4):790-6. doi: 10.1016/j.bbamem.2008.12.010. Epub 2008 Dec 29.

Cell-cell junction formation: the role of Rap1 and Rap1 guanine nucleotide exchange factors.

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Department of Physiological Chemistry, Centre for Biomedical Genetics and Cancer Genomics Centre, Universiteitsweg 100, 3584 CG Utrecht, The Netherlands.


Rap proteins are Ras-like small GTP-binding proteins that amongst others are involved in the control of cell-cell and cell-matrix adhesion. Several Rap guanine nucleotide exchange factors (RapGEFs) function to activate Rap. These multi-domain proteins, which include C3G, Epacs, PDZ-GEFs, RapGRPs and DOCK4, are regulated by various different stimuli and may function at different levels in junction formation. Downstream of Rap, a number of effector proteins have been implicated in junctional control, most notably the adaptor proteins AF6 and KRIT/CCM1. In this review, we will highlight the latest findings on the Rap signaling network in the control of epithelial and endothelial cell-cell junctions.

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