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Curr Opin Microbiol. 2009 Feb;12(1):110-6. doi: 10.1016/j.mib.2008.12.002. Epub 2009 Jan 20.

Shigella type III secretion effectors: how, where, when, for what purposes?

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Institut Pasteur, Unité de Pathogénie Microbienne Moléculaire, 25 rue du Dr Roux, 75724 Paris Cedex 15, France.


Bacteria of Shigella spp., the causative agents of shigellosis in humans, possess a repertoire of approximately 25-30 effectors injected into host cells by a type III secretion apparatus (T3SA). The T3SA activity is activated upon contact of bacteria with cells and controls expression of some effectors. Recent structural and functional studies suggest that two different sets of effectors are involved in inducing actin cytoskeleton reorganization to promote entry of bacteria into epithelial cells and in modulating cell signaling pathways to dampen innate immune responses induced upon infection, respectively. Schematically, effectors involved in entry are produced independently of the T3SA activity, whereas effectors involved in controlling the cell responses are produced upon activation of the T3SA.

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