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Eur J Nucl Med Mol Imaging. 2009 Apr;36(4):702-14. doi: 10.1007/s00259-008-1037-1. Epub 2009 Jan 21.

Nuclear imaging in cardiac amyloidosis.

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1
Department of Nuclear Medicine and Molecular Imaging, University Medical Center Groningen, Groningen, The Netherlands. a.w.j.m.glaudemans@ngmb.umcg.nl

Abstract

Amyloidosis is a disease characterized by depositions of amyloid in organs and tissues. It can be localized (in just one organ) or systemic. Cardiac amyloidosis is a debilitating disease and can lead to arrhythmias, deterioration of heart function and even sudden death. We reviewed PubMed/Medline, without time constraints, on the different nuclear imaging modalities that are used to visualize myocardial amyloid involvement. Several SPECT tracers have been used for this purpose. The results with these tracers in the evaluation of myocardial amyloidosis and their mechanisms of action are described. Most clinical evidence was found for the use of (123)I-MIBG. Myocardial defects in MIBG activity seem to correlate well with impaired cardiac sympathetic nerve endings due to amyloid deposits. (123)I-MIBG is an attractive option for objective evaluation of cardiac sympathetic level and may play an important role in the indirect measurement of the effect of amyloid myocardial infiltration. Other, less sensitive, options are (99m)Tc-aprotinin for imaging amyloid deposits and perhaps (99m)Tc-labelled phosphate derivatives, especially in the differential diagnosis of the aetiology of cardiac amyloidosis. PET tracers, despite the advantage of absolute quantification and higher resolution, are not yet well evaluated for the study of cardiac amyloidosis. Because of these advantages, there is still the need for further research in this field.

PMID:
19156411
DOI:
10.1007/s00259-008-1037-1
[Indexed for MEDLINE]
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