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J Agric Food Chem. 2009 Feb 11;57(3):924-9. doi: 10.1021/jf803142d.

Impact of thermal and nonthermal processing technologies on unfermented apple cider aroma volatiles.

Author information

1
Institute of Food and Agricultural Sciences, Citrus Research and Education Center, and Food Science and Human Nutrition, University of Florida, Lake Alfred, Florida 33850, USA.

Abstract

Aroma composition and microbial quality of identical lots of apple cider treated by pulsed electric field (PEF), ultraviolet irradiation (UV), or thermal pasteurization stored at 4 degrees C were compared at 0 and 4 weeks. Conditions were optimized to achieve identical 5 log reductions in Escherichia coli K12 for each treatment. PEF and thermal pasteurization maintained acceptable microbial quality for 4 weeks, but UV samples fermented after 2 weeks. Twenty-eight volatiles were quantified using gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS) and odor activity values (OAV) determined. OAVs of 69:hexyl acetate, 41:hexanal, 25:2-methylbutyl acetate, 23:2-methyl ethyl butyrate, and 14:2-(E)-hexenal were observed for the control cider. Significant differences (p < 0.05) in the levels of these odorants were observed between treated apple ciders only after 4 weeks of storage. Thermal samples lost 30% of the major ester and aldehyde volatiles during storage with significant decreases (p < 0.05) in butyl acetate, 2-methylbutyl acetate, hexanal, and 2-(E)-hexenal. In UV cider, hexanal and 2-(E)-hexenal were completely lost after 4 weeks of storage. Microbial spoilage in UV cider after 4 weeks of storage was chemically confirmed by the detection of the microbial metabolite 1,3-pentadiene. PEF cider lost <2% of its total ester and aldehydes after 4 weeks of storage and was preferred by 91% of the sensory panel over thermally treated cider.

PMID:
19154152
DOI:
10.1021/jf803142d
[Indexed for MEDLINE]

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