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Bioessays. 2009 Jan;31(1):21-8. doi: 10.1002/bies.080149.

X-chromosome upregulation and inactivation: two sides of the dosage compensation mechanism in mammals.

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Institute of Cytology and Genetics, Russian Academy of Sciences, Siberian Department, Novosibirsk, Russia.


Mammals have a very complex, tightly controlled, and developmentally regulated process of dosage compensation. One form of the process equalizes expression of the X-linked genes, present as a single copy in males (XY) and as two copies in females (XX), by inactivation of one of the two X-chromosomes in females. The second form of the process leads to balanced expression between the X-linked and autosomal genes by transcriptional upregulation of the active X in males and females. However, not all X-linked genes are absolutely balanced. This review is focused on the recent advances in studying the dosage compensation phenomenon in mammals.

[Indexed for MEDLINE]

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