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Annu Rev Clin Psychol. 2009;5:311-41. doi: 10.1146/annurev.clinpsy.032408.153628.

Anxiety disorders during childhood and adolescence: origins and treatment.

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Center for Emotional Health, Macquarie University, Sydney, NSW 2109 Australia.


The present review summarizes our current knowledge of the development and management of anxiety in children and adolescents. Consideration is given to limitations of this knowledge and directions for future research. The review begins with coverage of the development and demographic correlates of anxiety in young people and then moves to systematic discussion of some of the key etiological factors, including genetics, temperament, parenting, and individual experiences. The second part of the review describes current treatment strategies and efficacy as well as factors thought to influence treatment outcome, including treatment features, child factors, and parent factors. The review concludes with brief coverage of some more recent developments in treatment including alternative models of delivery and prevention strategies.

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