Send to

Choose Destination
See comment in PubMed Commons below
J Neurogenet. 2009;23(3):272-82. doi: 10.1080/01677060802572929. Epub 2009 Jan 19.

Addiction genetics and pleiotropic effects of common haplotypes that make polygenic contributions to vulnerability to substance dependence.

Author information

  • 1Molecular Neurobiology Branch, NIH-IRP (NIDA), Baltimore, Maryland 21224, USA.


Abundant evidence from family, adoption, and twin studies point to large genetic contributions to individual differences in vulnerability to develop dependence on one or more addictive substances. Twin data suggest that most of this genetic vulnerability is shared by individuals who are dependent on a variety of addictive substances. Molecular genetic studies, especially genomewide and candidate gene association studies, have elucidated common haplotypes in dozens of genes that appear to make polygenic contributions to vulnerability to developing dependence. Most genes that harbor currently identified addiction-associated haplotypes are expressed in the brain. Haplotypes in many of the same genes are identified in genomewide association studies that compare allele frequencies in substance dependent vs. control individuals from European, African, and Asian racial/ethnic backgrounds. Many of these addiction-associated haplotypes display pleiotropic influences on a variety of related brain-based phenotypes that display 1) substantial heritability and 2) clinical cooccurence with substance dependence.

[PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]
Free PMC Article
PubMed Commons home

PubMed Commons

How to join PubMed Commons

    Supplemental Content

    Full text links

    Icon for Taylor & Francis Icon for PubMed Central
    Loading ...
    Support Center