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Arch Environ Contam Toxicol. 2009 Oct;57(3):552-60. doi: 10.1007/s00244-008-9282-7. Epub 2009 Jan 18.

Perfluoroalkyl acids in marine organisms from Lake Shihwa, Korea.

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Zoology Department, National Food Safety and Toxicology Center, and Center for Integrative Toxicology, Michigan State University, East Lansing, MI 48824, USA.


To our knowledge, this is the first report of concentrations of perfluorooctanesulfonate (PFOS) and other perfluoroalkyl acids (PFAs) in marine organisms from the industrialized region of Korea. Concentrations of eight PFAs were determined in three species of fish (mullet, shad, and rockfish) and three species of marine invertebrates (blue crab, oyster, and mussel) from Lake Shihwa, Korea. This is an area in which relatively great concentrations of PFAs in water and in adjacent industrial effluents have been reported. PFOS was the dominant PFA in marine organisms and most PFOS concentrations were greater than the sum of all other PFAs. The mean concentrations of PFOS were 8.1 x 10 and 3.6 x 10 ng/g, wet weight in liver and blood of fish, respectively. Perfluorocarboxylic acids (PFCAs) were also found in fish, but their concentrations were 10-fold less than those for PFOS. Of the PFCAs measured in fish, concentrations of the longer-chain perfluoroundecanoic acid (PFUnA) were the greatest. Concentrations of PFOS in soft tissues of blue crabs decreased as a function of distance from the shore where inputs from the industrialized areas are discharged into Lake Shihwa. PFOS was the only PFA detectable in mussels and oysters with a mean of 0.5 +/- 0.2 and 1.1 +/- 0.3 ng/g, wet weight, respectively. Concentrations of PFUnA were positively correlated with perfluorodecanoic acid (PFDA) in both the liver and blood of fish, which suggests a common source of these two PFCAs in this area. Hazard quotients developed for fish species were all less than 1.0 for fish collected in Lake Shihwa.

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