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J Antimicrob Chemother. 2009 Mar;63(3):585-92. doi: 10.1093/jac/dkn544. Epub 2009 Jan 15.

Mutations associated with virological response to darunavir/ritonavir in HIV-1-infected protease inhibitor-experienced patients.

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AP-HP, Groupe Hospitalier Bichat-Claude Bernard and Université Denis Diderot-Paris 7, Laboratoire de Virologie, Paris, France.



The aim of the study was to identify a pattern of protease gene mutations associated with the virological response to darunavir/ritonavir-based regimens.


We analysed 153 treatment-experienced patients receiving a darunavir/ritonavir salvage regimen as a sole protease inhibitor (PI). Virological response was defined as an HIV-1 RNA load of <200 copies/mL at month 3. The impact of individual protease gene mutations on the virological response to darunavir/ritonavir was examined, and the combination of mutations most strongly associated with the virological response was identified.


The baseline median HIV RNA level was 4.7 log(10) copies/mL and the median CD4 cell count was 142 cells/mm(3). At month 3, 55% of patients had a virological response and the median fall in viral load from baseline was 1.7 log(10) copies/mL. All the patients had detectable darunavir concentrations at month 3. Cochran-Armitage procedure identified eight mutations with a negative impact on the virological response, namely K14R, K20I, E34Q, I47V, I54M, K55R, T74P and I84V; and two mutations (E35D and V82A) with a positive impact. In multivariate analyses, our genotypic scores were highly predictive of the virological response at month 3, along with the baseline plasma viral load and enfuvirtide co-prescription to enfuvirtide-naive patients.


Among the eight mutations with a negative impact on the virological response, I47V, I54M, T74P and I84V were previously described as darunavir resistance-associated mutations. Some PI resistance mutations had a positive impact on the virological response. These findings might help to explain the potency of darunavir/ritonavir on PI-resistant HIV.

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