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Eur J Heart Fail. 2009 Jan;11(1):99-105. doi: 10.1093/eurjhf/hfn007.

The European Heart Failure Self-care Behaviour scale revised into a nine-item scale (EHFScB-9): a reliable and valid international instrument.

Author information

1
Department of Cardiology, Thoraxcenter, University Medical Centre, University of Groningen, PO Box 30.001 9700 RB, Groningen, the Netherlands. t.jaarsma@thorax.umcg.nl

Abstract

AIMS:

Improved self-care is the goal of many heart failure (HF) management programmes. The 12-item European Heart Failure Self-Care Behaviour Scale (EHFScB scale) was developed and tested to measure patient self-care behaviours. It is now available in 14 languages. The aim of this study was to further determine reliability and validity of the EHFScB scale.

METHODS AND RESULTS:

Data from 2592 HF patients (mean age 73 years, 63% male) from six countries were analysed. Internal consistency was determined by Cronbach's alpha. Validity was established by (1) interviews with HF experts and with HF patients; (2) item analysis; (3) confirmatory factor analysis; and (4) analysing the relationship between the EHFScB scale and scales measuring quality of life and adherence. Internal consistency of the 12-item scale was 0.77 (0.71-0.85). After factor analyses and critical evaluation of both psychometric properties and content of separate items, a nine-item version was further evaluated. The reliability estimates for the total nine-item scale (EHFScB-9) was satisfactory (0.80) and Cronbach's alpha varied between 0.68 and 0.87 in the different countries. One reliable subscale was defined (consulting behaviour) with a Cronbach's alpha of 0.85. The EHFScB-9 measures a different construct than quality of life (r = 0.18) and adherence (r = 0.37).

CONCLUSION:

The 12-item EHFScB scale was revised into the nine-item EHFScB-9, which can be used as an internally consistent and valid instrument to measure HF-related self-care behaviour.

PMID:
19147463
DOI:
10.1093/eurjhf/hfn007
[Indexed for MEDLINE]
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