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Can J Infect Dis Med Microbiol. 2008 Jan;19(1):55-62.

Epidemiology and antifungal susceptibility of bloodstream Candida isolates in Quebec: Report on 453 cases between 2003 and 2005.

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1
Laboratoire de santé publique/Institut national de santé publique du Québec, Québec City, Québec.

Abstract

BACKGROUND:

Between May 2003 and April 2005, a population-based surveillance of Candida bloodstream infections was conducted in Quebec. A total of 453 episodes of candidemia (464 yeast isolates) from 54 participating hospitals were studied.

RESULTS:

The annual incidence rate was three per 100,000 population. Global hospital mortality was 38%. The most common predisposing factors were the presence of an intravascular catheter (80%), use of antibacterial therapy (67%), stay in an intensive care unit (49%), use of parenteral nutrition (32%) and intra-abdominal surgery (31%). Fluconazole alone or in association with other antifungals was used for treatment in over 80% of cases. Candida albicans comprised 62% of isolates, followed by Candida glabrata (17%), Candida parapsilosis (9%), Candida tropicalis (5%), Candida lusitaniae (3%) and Candida krusei (3%). Of the 288 C albicans isolates, seven (2%) were resistant to flucytosine, one to fluconazole and none to itraconazole or voriconazole. Of the 75 non-C albicans species isolates with reduced susceptibility to fluconazole (minimum inhibitory concentration [MIC] 16 mug/mL or greater), none were susceptible to itraconazole (MIC 0.12 mg/L or lower), whereas 71 (95%) were susceptible to voriconazole (MIC 1 mug/mL or lower). However, only five of 12 (42%) fluconazole-resistant isolates were susceptible to voriconazole. Posaconazole, ravuconazole and caspofungin displayed a broad spectrum of activity against these isolates, with MICs of 1 mg/L or lower in 56%, 92% and 100% of isolates, respectively. Overall, a correlation (r(2)>0.87) was observed among increasing fluconazole MICs and the geometric mean MICs of itraconazole, voriconazole, posaconazole and ravuconazole.

CONCLUSIONS:

These surveillance results when compared with those of the 1993 to 1995 survey confirm little variation in the distribution of species causing invasive Candida infection over a 10-year period in Quebec, as well as the continuous excellent overall in vitro activity of fluconazole.

KEYWORDS:

Antifungal resistance; Candidemia; Surveillance

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