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J Am Chem Soc. 2009 Jan 21;131(2):558-62. doi: 10.1021/ja805850q.

Electron transport and recombination in solid-state dye solar cell with spiro-OMeTAD as hole conductor.

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Photovoltaics and Optoelectronic Devices Group, Departament de Fisica, Universitat Jaume I, 12071 Castello, Spain.


We show that electron transport mechanisms in TiO(2) solid-state dye-sensitized solar cells (SDSCs) with spiro-OMeTAD as hole conductor are similar to those of high-performance DSCs with liquid electrolytes and ionic liquids. Impedance spectroscopy provides the parameters for transport and recombination at different conditions of steady state in the dark. The recombination rate is much higher in the solid solar cell, this being a main limiting step to obtain high-efficiency SDSCs. Thus, the expected gain in photovoltage, due to a lower hole Fermi level, is prevented by recombination losses. Under low potentials the transport is limited by the electron transport in the TiO(2), but at high potentials spiro-OMeTAD transport resistance reduces the fill factor and hence the efficiency on high-current devices.

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