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Pharm Res. 2009 Apr;26(4):977-86. doi: 10.1007/s11095-008-9806-x. Epub 2009 Jan 10.

Distribution of anthocyanins delivered from a bioadhesive black raspberry gel following topical intraoral application in normal healthy volunteers.

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Division of Oral Maxillofacial Surgery, Pathology & Anesthesiology, College of Dentistry, The Ohio State University, Columbus, Ohio, USA.



Results from our oral cavity chemoprevention trial demonstrated appreciable interpatient variations regarding chemopreventive efficacy of a freeze dried black raspberry (FBR) gel. We speculated these data reflected individual patient-related differences in absorption, target tissue uptake and local compound metabolism of key FBR compounds (anthocyanins). Accordingly, this study assessed the distribution of anthocyanins from the 10% (w/w) FBR gel in saliva, oral tissues and plasma.


Human subject participation entailed collection of: (1) saliva, tissue and plasma (5 min following gel application, keratinized tissues), (2) saliva and plasma (5 min after sublingual gel application), (3) saliva and plasma at 1, 2, and 4 h post gel application (keratinized tissues), and (4) saliva (cyanidin 3-rutinoside incubations). Levels of FBR anthocyanins in the respective samples were analyzed by LC/MS/MS.


Our data show: significantly higher anthocyanin levels in saliva and oral tissues relative to matched plasma samples, marked donor-specific variations in anthocyanin uptake, sustainability of anthocyanins at the target site, pH affects anthocyanin penetration and intraoral anthocyanin decomposition and/or metabolism.


No previous oral cavity chemoprevention trials evaluated compound distribution at the treatment site. Our data, which demonstrate a local delivery-derived pharmacologic advantage, provide insights which could advance oral cavity chemoprevention strategies.

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