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Cell Microbiol. 2009 Mar;11(3):521-30. doi: 10.1111/j.1462-5822.2008.01275.x. Epub 2008 Dec 30.

The ex vivo response of human intestinal mucosa to enteropathogenic Escherichia coli infection.

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Centre for Paediatric Gastroenterology, UCL Medical School, Royal Free Campus, London, UK.


In vitro organ culture (IVOC) represents a gold standard model to study enteropathogenic E. coli (EPEC) infection of human intestinal mucosa. However, the optimal examination of the bacterial-host cell interaction requires a directional epithelial exposure, without serosal or cut surface stimulation. A polarized IVOC system (pIVOC) was developed in order to overcome such limitations: apical EPEC infection produced negligible bacterial leakage via biopsy edges, resulted in enhanced colonization compared with standard IVOC, and showed evidence of bacterial detachment, as in natural rabbit EPEC infections. Examination of mucosal innate immune responses in pIVOC showed both interleukin (IL)-8 mRNA and protein levels were significantly increased after apical EPEC infection. Increased IL-8 levels mainly depended on flagellin expression as fliC-negative EPEC did not elicit a significant IL-8 response despite increased mucosal colonization compared with wild-type EPEC. In addition, apical application of purified flagella significantly increased IL-8 protein levels over non-infected controls. Immunofluorescence staining of EPEC-infected small intestinal biopsies revealed apical and basolateral distribution of Toll-like receptor (TLR) 5 on epithelium, suggesting that EPEC can trigger mucosal IL-8 responses by apical flagellin/TLR5 interaction ex vivo and does not require access to the basolateral membrane as postulated in cell culture models.

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