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Vet Clin North Am Exot Anim Pract. 2009 Jan;12(1):39-50, v-vi. doi: 10.1016/j.cvex.2008.08.005.

Cardiovascular physiology and diseases of amphibians.

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Lilly Research Laboratories, Eli Lilly and Co., 355 E. Merrill Street, Indianapolis IN 46225, USA.


The class Amphibia includes three orders of amphibians: the anurans (frogs and toads), urodeles (salamanders, axolotls, and newts), and caecilians. The diversity of lifestyles across these three orders has accompanying differences in the cardiovascular anatomy and physiology allowing for adaptations to aquatic or terrestrial habitats, pulmonic or gill respiration, hibernation, and body elongation (in the caecilian). This article provides a review of amphibian cardiovascular anatomy and physiology with discussion of unique species adaptations. In addition, amphibians as cardiovascular animal models and commonly encountered natural diseases are covered.

[Indexed for MEDLINE]

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