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Opt Express. 2009 Jan 5;17(1):80-6.

Nanofabricated upconversion nanoparticles for photodynamic therapy.

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Department of Chemical Engineering, Princeton University, Princeton, NJ, USA.


We present a novel process for the production of three-layer Composite Nanoparticles (CNPs) in the size range 100-300 nm with an up-converting phosphor interior, a coating of porphyrin photosensitizer, and a biocompatible PEG outer layer to prevent clearance by the reticuloendothelial system. We show that these CNPs produce millimolar amounts of singlet oxygen at NIR intensities far less than other two-photon techniques.

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