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Ther Adv Cardiovasc Dis. 2008 Dec;2(6):425-34. doi: 10.1177/1753944708096379.

Cardiovascular disease in chronic kidney disease.

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Department of Internal Medicine, Section on Nephrology, Wake Forest University School of Medicine, Winston-Salem, North Carolina, USA.


The presence of kidney disease, manifested by low glomerular filtration rates (GFR) and/or large amounts of protein in the urine, is independently associated with increased rates of cardiovascular disease (CVD). The severity of kidney disease is associated with graded increases in risk for CVD and death. Chronic kidney disease (CKD) should be recognized and treatment initiated early to maximize the chances for slowing nephropathy progression and reducing proteinuria. We recommend screening for CKD in all patients with CVD, including computing an estimated GFR and evaluating for proteinuria using a spot urine albumin:creatinine ratio. Aggressive management of traditional cardiovascular risk factors should be employed in this high-risk population, specifically rigorous hypertension control (including the use of angiotensin-converting enzyme inhibitors (ACEI)/angiotensin receptor blocking agents (ARB)), management of hyperglycemia, hyperlipidemia and smoking cessation. Further studies are needed to identify the unique renal failure-related (non-traditional) risk factors that contribute to accelerated atherosclerosis in this population and performance of randomized trials to assess the effects of cardiovascular interventions in individuals with CKD.

[Indexed for MEDLINE]

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