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Nat Immunol. 2009 Feb;10(2):203-13. doi: 10.1038/ni.1692. Epub 2009 Jan 4.

Dectin-1 directs T helper cell differentiation by controlling noncanonical NF-kappaB activation through Raf-1 and Syk.

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Department of Molecular Cell Biology and Immunology, Vrije University Medical Center, 1007 MC Amsterdam, The Netherlands.


The C-type lectin dectin-1 activates the transcription factor NF-kappaB through a Syk kinase-dependent signaling pathway to induce antifungal immunity. Here we show that dectin-1 expressed on human dendritic cells activates not only the Syk-dependent canonical NF-kappaB subunits p65 and c-Rel, but also the noncanonical NF-kappaB subunit RelB. Dectin-1, when stimulated by the beta-glucan curdlan or by Candida albicans, induced a second signaling pathway mediated by the serine-threonine kinase Raf-1, which integrated with the Syk pathway at the point of NF-kappaB activation. Raf-1 antagonized Syk-induced RelB activation by promoting sequestration of RelB into inactive p65-RelB dimers, thereby altering T helper cell differentiation. Thus, dectin-1 activates two independent signaling pathways, one through Syk and one through Raf-1, to induce immune responses.

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