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J Ren Nutr. 2009 Jan;19(1):57-60. doi: 10.1053/j.jrn.2008.10.006.

Dietary sodium intake and arterial blood pressure.

Author information

1
Division of Nephrology, William Beaumont Hospital, Royal Oak, MI 48009, USA. fdumler@beaumont.edu

Abstract

We sought to summarize major recent studies in the field of dietary sodium intake and arterial blood pressure, and discuss the following trials.

INTERSALT:

Sodium intake correlates with the rise in blood pressure with age, but not with the prevalence of hypertension. The population study identified a minimal impact of sodium intake on blood pressure (0.9 mm Hg/10 mmol difference in salt intake). DASH: This diet induced significant reductions in blood pressure compared with the control diet. Further decreases were observed with DASH and a 50 mmol/day sodium intake.

VANGUARD:

Blood pressure was inversely related to urinary potassium, calcium and magnesium but not to sodium excretion. TONE: Cardiovascular events were highest in the usual care group (83%) and lowest in the sodium reduction-plus-weight loss group (56%).

META-ANALYSIS:

A systematic review of 11 long-term controlled randomized trials reported a small decrease (1.1 mm Hg) in median systolic but not diastolic blood pressure with a reduced dietary sodium intake. In conclusion, (1) sodium restriction in hypertensive patients reduces blood pressure, and (2) the long-term impact of reduced salt intake on blood pressure, mortality, and morbidity remains to be defined.

PMID:
19121772
DOI:
10.1053/j.jrn.2008.10.006
[Indexed for MEDLINE]

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