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New Phytol. 2009 Jan;181(2):435-447. doi: 10.1111/j.1469-8137.2008.02675.x.

The plant pathogenic fungus Gaeumannomyces graminis var. tritici improves bacterial growth and triggers early gene regulations in the biocontrol strain Pseudomonas fluorescens Pf29Arp.

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INRA, Agrocampus Ouest-Université Rennes 1, UMR1099 BiO3P 'Biologie des Organismes et des Populations Appliquée à la Protection des Plantes', 35653 Le Rheu, France;INRA, UMR 1136 INRA-Nancy Université'Interactions Arbres/Microorganismes', 54280 Champenoux, France;IRISA-INRIA, Campus de Beaulieu Bâtiment 12, 35042 Rennes, France.


In soil, some antagonistic rhizobacteria contribute to reduce root diseases caused by phytopathogenic fungi. Direct modes of action of these bacteria have been largely explored; however, commensal interaction also takes place between these microorganisms and little is known about the influence of filamentous fungi on bacteria. An in vitro confrontation bioassay between the pathogenic fungus Gaeumannomyces graminis var. tritici (Ggt) and the biocontrol bacterial strain Pseudomonas fluorescens Pf29Arp was set up to analyse bacterial transcriptional changes induced by the fungal mycelium at three time-points of the interaction before cell contact and up until contact. For this, a Pf29Arp shotgun DNA microarray was constructed. Specifity of Ggt effect was assessed in comparison with one of two other filamentous fungi, Laccaria bicolor and Magnaporthe grisea. During a commensal interaction, Ggt increased the growth rate of Pf29Arp. Before contact, Ggt induced bacterial genes involved in mycelium colonization. At contact, genes encoding protein of stress response and a patatin-like protein were up-regulated. Among all the bacterial genes identified, xseB was specifically up-regulated at contact by Ggt but down-regulated by the other fungi. Data showed that the bacterium sensed the presence of the fungus early, but the main gene alteration occurred during bacterial-fungal cell contact.

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