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Indoor Air. 2008 Dec;18(6):511-20. doi: 10.1111/j.1600-0668.2008.00552.x.

Effect of floor surface temperature on blood flow and skin temperature in the foot.

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Department of Architecture, Bucheon University, GeongkiDo, Korea.


A total of 16 healthy college students participated as subjects to elucidate the hypothesis that blood flow and skin temperature in foot are affected by the floor surface temperature. The floor surface temperature was controlled by varying the temperature of water (tw) flowing underneath the floor, and it ranged from tw 15 to 40 degrees C at 5 degrees C intervals. The blood flow rate was measured in the dorsal right toe, and skin temperatures were measured for 60 min at 8 points: the neck, right scapular, left hand, right shin, left bottom of the toe, right instep, left finger, and rectum. The blood flow rate in the foot tissue was increased until the foot skin temperature warmed up to 34 degrees C (P = 0.000). The final skin temperatures on the bottom of the toe were 19.4 +/- 2.44 degrees C for tw 15 degrees C, 22.4 +/- 2.45 degrees C for tw 20 degrees C, 24.8 +/- 2.80 degrees C for tw 25 degrees C, 27.7 +/- 2.13 degrees C for tw 30 degrees C, 30.6 +/- 2.06 degrees C for tw 35 degrees C, 33.2 +/- 1.45 degrees C for tw 40 degrees C, 34.2 +/- 1.55 degrees C for tw 45 degrees C, and 35.2 +/- 1.65 degrees C for tw 50 degrees C. Considering blood flow and comfort, the partial floor heating system is suggested and the recommended floor surface temperature range is 27-33 degrees C.


A warm floor surface can serve to satisfy occupants when the ambient temperature maintained at 20 degrees C which represents an energy conscious temperature. A warm floor can induce high blood perfusion in the feet and consequently improve an occupant's health by treating many vascular-related disorders. Even in a well-insulated residential building, a partially heated floor system could prevent overheating while providing surface warmth.

[Indexed for MEDLINE]

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